Space weather

Solar wind speed Solar wind magnetic fields Noon 10.7cm radio flux
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Update

Update
WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: 2022-09-27 01.46 UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 27 0146 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 27 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-09-27 01.32 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 27 0131 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-09-27 01.23 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 27 0122 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 27 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-09-27 01.17 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 27 0113 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-26 22.09 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 26 2210 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 27 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-26 11.42 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3246
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 25 1235 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 2131 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-25 13.11 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 25 1235 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-24 14.44 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 24 1445 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 24 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-09-24 06.02 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 24 0559 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-24 03.38 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 24 0338 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 24 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-09-23 21.49 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 23 1807 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-09-23 18.47 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 23 1808 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-09-23 18.46 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 23 1756 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 620 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: 2022-09-23 15.37 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Sep 23: G1 (Minor) Sep 24: G1 (Minor) Sep 25: None (Below G1)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-09-23 14.31 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 23 1350 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-09-23 14.19 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 23 1401 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 820 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-22 22.26 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 22 2225 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 23 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: 2022-09-21 06.14 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 21 0541 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Sep 21 0543 UTC
End Time: 2022 Sep 21 0545 UTC
Duration: 4 minutes
Peak Flux: 210 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 137 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Issued: 2022-09-20 17.31 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Sep 21: None (Below G1) Sep 22: None (Below G1) Sep 23: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Comment: G1 (Minor) Watch issued for expected enhanced activity due to a well-connected coronal hole high speed stream.

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-19 17.42 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 19 1742 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 20 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-18 11.30 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 18 1130 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 18 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: 2022-09-16 16.27 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 16 1549 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Sep 16 1559 UTC
End Time: 2022 Sep 16 1612 UTC
X-ray Class: M6.2
Location: N20W85
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 2022-09-16 16.04 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 16 1557 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: 2022-09-16 10.10 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 16 0944 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Sep 16 0949 UTC
End Time: 2022 Sep 16 0956 UTC
X-ray Class: M7.9
Location: N18W78
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 2022-09-16 09.55 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 16 0949 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-15 05.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4109
Valid From: 2022 Sep 14 2205 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 15 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse
Issued: 2022-09-14 23.27 UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse
Observed: 2022 Sep 14 2315 UTC
Deviation: 30 nT
Station: BOU

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-09-14 23.23 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 14 2320 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Issued: 2022-09-14 22.08 UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 14 2240 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 14 2340 UTC
IP Shock Passage Observed: 2022 Sep 14 2152 UTC

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-14 22.02 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 14 2205 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 15 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-14 05.07 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3244
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 04 1405 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 4759 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-13 08.36 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3243
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 04 1405 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 6040 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: 2022-09-13 00.00 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 12 2343 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Sep 12 2344 UTC
End Time: 2022 Sep 12 2345 UTC
Duration: 2 minutes
Peak Flux: 400 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 150 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

WARNING
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Issued: 2022-09-12 12.25 UTC
Proton 10MeV Integral Flux above 10pfu expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 12 1300 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 12 2200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
Predicted NOAA Scale: S1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Radio - Minor impacts on polar HF (high frequency) radio propagation resulting in fades at lower frequencies.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-12 07.21 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3242
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 04 1405 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 21637 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-11 09.26 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3241
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 04 1405 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 15503 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-10 07.37 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 10 0735 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 10 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-10 04.59 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3240
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 04 1405 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 11844 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-09 10.56 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4106
Valid From: 2022 Sep 08 2133 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 09 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-09-09 10.54 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 09 1054 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 09 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-09 05.27 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3239
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 04 1405 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 22580 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-09 02.56 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4105
Valid From: 2022 Sep 08 2133 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 09 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-09-08 22.43 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 08 2241 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 09 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-09-08 21.54 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 08 2153 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-08 21.35 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 08 2133 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 09 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-09-08 05.22 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 08 0522 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 08 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-08 05.06 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3238
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 04 1405 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 15368 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-09-08 04.05 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 08 0404 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-08 03.35 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 08 0335 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 08 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-09-07 16.25 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 07 1623 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-07 13.50 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4102
Valid From: 2022 Sep 07 0653 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 07 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-07 06.53 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 07 0653 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 07 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-07 05.06 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3237
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 04 1405 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 7271 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-06 22.28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4100
Valid From: 2022 Sep 06 2048 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 07 0600 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-09-06 20.53 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 06 2050 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1800-2100 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-06 20.53 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 06 2048 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 06 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-06 11.15 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4098
Valid From: 2022 Sep 02 2350 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 06 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-06 05.06 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3236
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 04 1405 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 9252 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-09-06 02.06 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 06 0205 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 06 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-05 23.54 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4097
Valid From: 2022 Sep 02 2350 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 06 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

CONTINUED ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-05 11.39 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Continuation of Serial Number: 3235
Begin Time: 2022 Sep 04 1405 UTC
Yesterday Maximum 2MeV Flux: 6690 pfu

Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-09-05 11.28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1674
Valid From: 2022 Sep 04 0126 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 05 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-09-05 11.28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 05 1125 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0900-1200 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-09-05 00.40 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 05 0035 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-04 23.19 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4096
Valid From: 2022 Sep 02 2350 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 05 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-09-04 23.19 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1673
Valid From: 2022 Sep 04 0126 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 05 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-09-04 23.15 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 04 2311 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: 2022-09-04 17.15 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 04 1715 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1500-1800 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted
Issued: 2022-09-04 16.22 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Sep 05: G2 (Moderate) Sep 06: None (Below G1) Sep 07: None (Below G1)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Comment: Persistent positive CH HSS effects with a chance for glancing arrival by midday from the 02 Sep CME.

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: 2022-09-04 14.30 UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 460
Valid From: 2022 Sep 04 0239 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 04 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Issued: 2022-09-04 14.19 UTC
Electron 2MeV Integral Flux exceeded 1000pfu
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 04 1405 UTC
Station: GOES16


Potential Impacts: Satellite systems may experience significant charging resulting in increased risk to satellite systems.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-09-04 14.00 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 04 1359 UTC
Synoptic Period: 1200-1500 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: 2022-09-04 11.50 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 04 1148 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0900-1200 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-09-04 10.43 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 04 1040 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0900-1200 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: 2022-09-04 07.47 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 04 0744 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0600-0900 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-09-04 07.27 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 04 0725 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0600-0900 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Issued: 2022-09-04 05.16 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 6
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 04 0515 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Issued: 2022-09-04 02.41 UTC
Geomagnetic K-Index of 6 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 04 0239 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 04 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-09-04 01.51 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 04 0150 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-09-04 01.28 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 04 0126 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 04 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-04 01.09 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4095
Valid From: 2022 Sep 02 2350 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 05 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-03 20.29 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4094
Valid From: 2022 Sep 02 2350 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 04 0300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-03 11.39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4093
Valid From: 2022 Sep 02 2350 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 03 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-09-03 11.39 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 1671
Valid From: 2022 Sep 03 0158 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Sep 03 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Issued: 2022-09-03 02.20 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 03 0219 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0000-0300 UTC

Active Warning: Yes
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-09-03 01.59 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 03 0158 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 03 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-09-02 23.57 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Sep 02 2356 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-09-02 23.57 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Sep 02 2350 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 03 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted
Issued: 2022-09-02 16.28 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Sep 03: None (Below G1) Sep 04: G2 (Moderate) Sep 05: G1 (Minor)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

WATCH
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted
Issued: 2022-09-01 21.18 UTC
Geomagnetic Storm Category G2 Predicted

Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Sep 02: None (Below G1) Sep 03: None (Below G1) Sep 04: G2 (Moderate)

THIS SUPERSEDES ANY/ALL PRIOR WATCHES IN EFFECT

Comment: G2 Watch for equatorial CH HSS.

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 55 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Power grid fluctuations can occur. High-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms.
Spacecraft - Satellite orientation irregularities may occur; increased drag on low Earth-orbit satellites is possible.
Radio - HF (high frequency) radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes.
Aurora - Aurora may be seen as low as New York to Wisconsin to Washington state.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-08-31 22.26 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 31 2225 UTC
Synoptic Period: 2100-2400 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-31 22.24 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 31 2220 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Sep 01 1200 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-31 04.12 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 31 0412 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 31 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-30 19.13 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 30 1915 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 30 2359 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Issued: 2022-08-30 19.12 UTC
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulse expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 30 1910 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 30 2030 UTC
IP Shock Passage Observed: 2022 Aug 30 1853 UTC

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-08-30 18.32 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 30 1741 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 368 km/s

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-30 08.55 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4088
Valid From: 2022 Aug 30 0350 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 30 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-08-30 04.42 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 30 0442 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 30 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-08-30 04.16 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 30 0401 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-30 03.50 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 30 0350 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 30 0900 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: 2022-08-29 19.18 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 29 1654 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Aug 29 1658 UTC
End Time: 2022 Aug 29 1828 UTC
Duration: 94 minutes
Peak Flux: 1000 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 135 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-08-29 18.06 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 29 1701 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
Type II Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-08-29 17.24 UTC
Type II Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 29 1652 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 000 km/s

Comment: No velocity provided by RSTN

Description: Type II emissions occur in association with eruptions on the sun and typically indicate a coronal mass ejection is associated with a flare event.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: 2022-08-29 11.43 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 29 1048 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Aug 29 1108 UTC
End Time: 2022 Aug 29 1112 UTC
X-ray Class: M8.6
Location: S27W95
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 2022-08-29 11.15 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 29 1108 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Issued: 2022-08-29 05.56 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 29 0555 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 29 1500 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset
NOAA Scale: G1 - Minor

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft - Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

ALERT
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Issued: 2022-08-29 05.20 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 29 0520 UTC
Synoptic Period: 0300-0600 UTC

Active Warning: Yes

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-29 03.52 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Valid From: 2022 Aug 29 0350 UTC
Valid To: 2022 Aug 29 1800 UTC
Warning Condition: Onset

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

SUMMARY
10cm Radio Burst
Issued: 2022-08-28 20.27 UTC
10cm Radio Burst
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 28 1720 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Aug 28 1814 UTC
End Time: 2022 Aug 28 2001 UTC
Duration: 281 minutes
Peak Flux: 1800 sfu
Latest Penticton Noon Flux: 128 sfu

Description: A 10cm radio burst indicates that the electromagnetic burst associated with a solar flare at the 10cm wavelength was double or greater than the initial 10cm radio background. This can be indicative of significant radio noise in association with a solar flare. This noise is generally short-lived but can cause interference for sensitive receivers including radar, GPS, and satellite communications.

SUMMARY
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Issued: 2022-08-28 17.02 UTC
X-ray Event exceeded M5
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 28 1548 UTC
Maximum Time: 2022 Aug 28 1619 UTC
End Time: 2022 Aug 28 1646 UTC
X-ray Class: M6.7
Location: S27W82
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered primarily on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth.
Radio - Limited blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication for tens of minutes.

ALERT
Type IV Radio Emission
Issued: 2022-08-28 16.35 UTC
Type IV Radio Emission
Begin Time: 2022 Aug 28 1607 UTC

Description: Type IV emissions occur in association with major eruptions on the sun and are typically associated with strong coronal mass ejections and solar radiation storms.

ALERT
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Issued: 2022-08-28 16.12 UTC
X-Ray Flux exceeded M5
Threshold Reached: 2022 Aug 28 1609 UTC
NOAA Scale: R2 - Moderate

Potential Impacts: Area of impact centered on sub-solar point on the sunlit side of Earth. Extent of blackout of HF (high frequency) radio communication dependent upon current X-ray Flux intensity. For real-time information on affected area and expected duration please see http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/d-region-absorption-predictions-d-rap.

EXTENDED WARNING
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Issued: 2022-08-28 11.05 UTC
Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 4085
Valid From: 2022 Aug 27 1150 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2022 Aug 28 2100 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence

Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents - Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora - Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

Table

Date Radio flux 10.7 cm SESC Sunspot number Sunspot area 10E-6 New regions GOES15 X-ray Bkgd flux Flares
X-ray Optical
C M X S 1 2 3
2022-08-27 128 84 1120 0 * 13 4 0 35 2 0 0
2022-08-28 252 79 660 0 * 9 3 0 15 1 0 0
2022-08-29 131 87 930 0 * 5 4 0 13 1 0 0
2022-08-30 126 50 280 0 * 5 2 0 4 0 0 0
2022-08-31 113 42 500 0 * 5 0 0 6 0 0 0
2022-09-01 116 67 480 2 * 6 0 0 0 0 0 0
2022-09-02 130 71 650 2 * 12 0 0 7 0 0 0
2022-09-03 123 68 770 0 * 15 0 0 11 0 0 0
2022-09-04 128 62 740 0 * 16 0 0 5 2 0 0
2022-09-05 130 79 780 1 * 15 1 0 3 1 0 0
2022-09-06 126 56 270 1 * 8 0 0 0 0 0 0
2022-09-07 126 73 240 1 * 4 0 0 3 0 0 0
2022-09-08 127 75 240 1 * 5 0 0 5 0 0 0
2022-09-09 126 72 180 0 * 5 0 0 3 0 0 0
2022-09-10 136 122 340 3 * 9 0 0 4 1 0 0
2022-09-11 152 113 410 0 * 10 0 0 21 0 0 0
2022-09-12 150 117 370 0 * 14 1 0 22 0 0 0
2022-09-13 154 93 870 1 * 16 0 0 24 0 0 0
2022-09-14 144 57 1240 0 * 13 1 0 16 1 0 0
2022-09-15 140 71 1000 1 * 7 0 0 2 2 0 0
2022-09-16 131 64 1080 0 * 13 2 0 7 0 0 0
2022-09-17 132 76 520 0 * 7 2 0 3 0 0 0
2022-09-18 136 51 470 0 * 10 0 0 6 0 0 0
2022-09-19 128 74 440 2 * 8 0 0 4 1 0 0
2022-09-20 137 70 720 1 * 6 1 0 6 3 0 0
2022-09-21 137 70 650 2 * 4 1 0 4 0 0 0
2022-09-22 137 99 980 1 * 10 0 0 9 1 0 0
2022-09-23 146 111 1050 1 * 15 1 0 27 0 0 0
2022-09-24 147 128 980 0 * 13 0 0 29 0 0 0
2022-09-25 135 96 850 0 * 12 0 0 5 0 0 0
Average/Total 137 79 660 20 290 23 0 299 16 0 0

Summary graph

Flares

Solar wind

Solar Wind

The solar wind is a stream of plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with energies usually between 1.5 and 10 keV. The stream of particles varies in density, temperature, and speed over time and over solar longitude. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy, from the high temperature of the corona and magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic phenomena in it.

The solar wind is divided into two components, respectively termed the slow solar wind and the fast solar wind. The slow solar wind has a velocity of about 400 km/s, a temperature of 1.4–1.6×10e6 K and a composition that is a close match to the corona. By contrast, the fast solar wind has a typical velocity of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×10e5 K and it nearly matches the composition of the Sun's photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as dense and more variable in intensity than the fast solar wind. The slow wind also has a more complex structure, with turbulent regions and large-scale structures.

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

Solar radio flux at 10.7 cm

The solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (2800 MHz) is an excellent indicator of solar activity. Often called the F10.7 index, it is one of the longest running records of solar activity. The F10.7 radio emissions originates high in the chromosphere and low in the corona of the solar atmosphere. The F10.7 correlates well with the sunspot number as well as a number of UltraViolet (UV) and visible solar irradiance records. Reported in “solar flux units”, (s.f.u.), the F10.7 can vary from below 50 s.f.u., to above 300 s.f.u., over the course of a solar cycle.

Flares

Flares

A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed over the Sun's surface or the solar limb, which is interpreted as a large energy release of up to 6 × 10e25 joules of energy. They are often, but not always, followed by a colossal coronal mass ejection. The flare ejects clouds of electrons, ions, and atoms through the corona of the sun into space. These clouds typically reach Earth a day or two after the event.

Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), when the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvin, while the electrons, protons, and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. They produce radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays, although most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and for this reason the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. The same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections (CME), although the relation between CMEs and flares is still not well established.

The frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is particularly "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "quiet", following the 11-year cycle (the solar cycle). Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones.

Classification

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (in watts per square metre, W/m2) of 100 to 800 picometre X-rays near Earth, as measured on the GOES spacecraft.

Classification Peak Flux Range at 100-800 picometer
W/m2
A < 10e-7
B 10e-7 to 10e-6
C 10e-6 to 10e-5
M 10e-5 to 10e-4
X 10e-4 to 10e-3
Z > 10e-3

An earlier flare classification is based on Hα spectral observations. The scheme uses both the intensity and emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: (f)aint, (n)ormal or (b)rilliant. The emitting surface is measured in terms of millionths of the hemisphere and is described below. (The total hemisphere area AH = 6.2 × 1012 km2.)

Classification Corrected area
(millionths of hemisphere)
S < 100
1 100 - 250
2 250 - 600
3 600 - 1200
4 > 1200

Sunspot number

Sunspots

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They correspond to concentrations of magnetic field that inhibit convection and result in reduced surface temperature compared to the surrounding photosphere. Sunspots usually appear in pairs, with pair members of opposite magnetic polarity. The number of sunspots varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.

Sunspot populations quickly rise and more slowly fall on an irregular cycle of 11 years, although significant variations in the number of sunspots attending the 11-year period are known over longer spans of time. For example, from 1900 to the 1960s, the solar maxima trend of sunspot count has been upward; from the 1960s to the present, it has diminished somewhat. Over the last decades the Sun has had a markedly high average level of sunspot activity; it was last similarly active over 8,000 years ago.

The number of sunspots correlates with the intensity of solar radiation over the period since 1979, when satellite measurements of absolute radiative flux became available. Since sunspots are darker than the surrounding photosphere it might be expected that more sunspots would lead to less solar radiation and a decreased solar constant. However, the surrounding margins of sunspots are brighter than the average, and so are hotter; overall, more sunspots increase the Sun's solar constant or brightness. The variation caused by the sunspot cycle to solar output is relatively small, on the order of 0.1% of the solar constant (a peak-to-trough range of 1.3 W/m2 compared to 1366 W/m2 for the average solar constant).

K-indices



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Data


Estimated Planetary

Estimated Planetary

Date A K-indices (UTC)
0h 3h 6h 9h 12h 15h 18h 21h
2022-08-29 14 2 4 3 3 3 2 3 1
2022-08-30 13 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 3
2022-08-31 13 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 4
2022-09-01 9 2 4 2 2 2 2 1 1
2022-09-02 8 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 4
2022-09-03 25 5 3 4 4 4 3 3 4
2022-09-04 64 5 6 6 6 5 6 4 5
2022-09-05 32 5 5 4 5 3 4 4 4
2022-09-06 20 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4
2022-09-07 14 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 1
2022-09-08 19 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 4
2022-09-09 13 4 2 3 4 3 2 1 2
2022-09-10 12 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 2
2022-09-11 9 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 1
2022-09-12 9 3 3 3 2 2 1 2 1
2022-09-13 4 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 1
2022-09-14 9 1 0 2 2 2 2 3 4
2022-09-15 6 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
2022-09-16 4 1 2 1 2 1 1 0 1
2022-09-17 5 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 2
2022-09-18 11 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2
2022-09-19 11 3 1 1 3 3 3 2 3
2022-09-20 8 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 2
2022-09-21 5 2 1 2 2 1 1 0 2
2022-09-22 6 0 1 1 1 2 2 1 3
2022-09-23 12 3 1 3 3 3 3 2 3
2022-09-24 13 2 4 2 3 3 3 3 3
2022-09-25 7 2 2 2 2 2 1 0 2
2022-09-26 6 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 3
2022-09-27

Middle Latitude

Date A K-indices
2022-08-29 13 2 4 3 3 3 2 3 1
2022-08-30 13 2 4 2 3 3 2 2 3
2022-08-31 12 3 3 1 2 3 2 2 4
2022-09-01 9 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 1
2022-09-02 10 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 4
2022-09-03 23 5 3 3 4 4 3 2 4
2022-09-04 33 4 4 5 5 4 4 3 5
2022-09-05 21 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3
2022-09-06 14 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3
2022-09-07 12 2 2 4 3 3 3 2 1
2022-09-08 17 2 4 4 3 3 2 2 4
2022-09-09 14 3 2 3 4 4 2 1 2
2022-09-10 10 2 1 3 2 3 2 3 2
2022-09-11 9 2 1 1 3 3 3 2 1
2022-09-12 9 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 1
2022-09-13 5 0 1 3 1 2 2 1 1
2022-09-14 10 1 0 3 2 2 2 3 4
2022-09-15 8 4 1 1 2 2 2 1 1
2022-09-16 5 0 2 1 1 2 3 1 1
2022-09-17 5 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1
2022-09-18 9 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2
2022-09-19 7 2 1 0 2 3 3 1 2
2022-09-20 6 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1
2022-09-21 4 1 0 1 2 2 2 0 1
2022-09-22 5 0 1 1 1 2 2 1 3
2022-09-23 12 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 2
2022-09-24 10 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2
2022-09-25 5 2 2 2 2 2 1 0 1
2022-09-26 5 1 1 0 1 1 2 1 3
2022-09-27

High Latitude

Date A K-indices
2022-08-29 21 2 4 5 4 5 1 2 0
2022-08-30 17 2 4 3 5 3 2 2 2
2022-08-31 13 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 3
2022-09-01 9 3 3 2 3 2 1 1 1
2022-09-02 7 1 0 2 2 4 1 1 1
2022-09-03 33 4 3 5 5 6 3 3 3
2022-09-04 91 5 6 7 7 6 7 5 5
2022-09-05 49 5 4 5 7 5 5 3 3
2022-09-06 31 5 4 5 4 5 4 3 2
2022-09-07 27 3 2 3 5 5 5 4 2
2022-09-08 36 2 3 6 6 5 4 3 3
2022-09-09 30 2 1 4 7 5 2 1 1
2022-09-10 31 2 2 4 4 6 6 3 1
2022-09-11 15 2 1 1 5 4 4 1 1
2022-09-12 23 1 3 6 5 4 2 0 1
2022-09-13 5 0 0 3 3 1 1 0 0
2022-09-14 6 0 0 1 2 3 1 2 3
2022-09-15 4 2 1 0 1 1 2 1 1
2022-09-16 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
2022-09-17 4 1 1 1 2 3 0 0 1
2022-09-18 22 2 2 5 5 5 2 2 2
2022-09-19 18 2 0 1 4 5 5 2 2
2022-09-20 6 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1
2022-09-21 8 1 1 2 5 1 0 0 1
2022-09-22 3 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 2
2022-09-23 27 1 1 6 5 4 5 1 2
2022-09-24 22 2 3 3 6 4 3 2 2
2022-09-25 11 1 1 1 5 4 2 0 0
2022-09-26 4 1 0 0 2 3 0 0 1
2022-09-27

About

The K-index quantifies disturbances in the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field with an integer in the range 0–9 with 1 being calm and 5 or more indicating a geomagnetic storm. It is derived from the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer during a three-hour interval. The label K comes from the German word Kennziffer meaning “characteristic digit”. The K-index was introduced by Julius Bartels in 1938.

The Estimated 3-hour Planetary Kp-index is derived at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center using data from the following ground-based magnetometers:

  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Meanook, Canada
  • Ottawa, Canada
  • Fredericksburg, Virginia
  • Hartland, UK
  • Wingst, Germany
  • Niemegk, Germany
  • Canberra, Australia

These data are made available thanks to the cooperative efforts between SWPC and data providers around the world, which currently includes the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN), the British Geological Survey, the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), and Geoscience Australia. Important magnetometer observations are also contributed by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and the Korean Space Weather Center K-index Watches are issued when the highest predicted NOAA estimated Kp-indices for a day are K = 5, 6, 7, or >= 8 and is reported in terms of the NOAA G scale. K-index Warnings are issued when NOAA estimated Kp-indices of 4, 5, 6, and 7 or greater are expected. K-index Alerts are issued when the NOAA estimated Kp-indices reach 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.


More info
Data source: NOAA, Wikipedia

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